OPLS Force Field for Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

Brian Doherty, Orlando Acevedo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are a class of solvents frequently composed of choline chloride and a neutral hydrogen bond donor (HBD) at ratios of 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3, respectively. As cost-effective and eco-friendly solvents, DESs have gained considerable popularity in multiple fields, including materials, separations, and nanotechnology. In the present work, a comprehensive set of transferable parameters have been fine-tuned to accurately reproduce bulk-phase physical properties and local intermolecular interactions for 8 different choline chloride-based DESs. This nonpolarizable force field, OPLS-DES, gave near quantitative agreement at multiple temperatures for experimental densities, viscosities, heat capacities, and surface tensions yielding overall mean absolute errors (MAEs) of ca. 1.1%, 1.6%, 5.5%, and 1.5%, respectively. Local interactions and solvent structuring between the ions and HBDs, including urea, glycerol, phenol, ethylene glycol, levulinic acid, oxalic acid, and malonic acid, were accurately reproduced when compared to radial distribution functions and coordination numbers derived from experimental liquid-phase neutron diffraction data and from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. The reproduction of transport properties presented a considerable challenge and behaved more like a supercooled liquid near room temperature; higher-temperature simulations, e.g., 400-500 K, or an alternative polarizable force field is recommended when computing self-diffusion coefficients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9982-9993
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Issue number43
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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