Opioid-induced Hallucinations: A Review of the Literature, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Eellan Sivanesan, Melvin Gitlin, Keith A. Candiotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Despite their association with multiple adverse effects, opioid prescription continues to increase. Opioid-induced hallucination is an uncommon yet significant adverse effect of opioid treatment. The practitioner may encounter patient reluctance to volunteer the occurrence of this phenomenon because of fears of being judged mentally unsound. The majority of the literature concerning opioid-induced hallucinations arises from treatment during end-of-life care and cancer pain. Because the rate of opioid prescriptions continues to increase in the population, the rate of opioid-associated hallucinations may also conceivably increase. With a forecasted increase in the patient-to-physician ratio, opioid therapy is predicted to be provided by practitioners of varying backgrounds and medical specialties. Hence, knowledge of the pharmacology and potential adverse effects of these agents is required. This review seeks to increase awareness of this potential complication through a discussion of the literature, potential mechanisms of action, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jun 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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