Operation and maintenance requirements for small-flow treatment systems

J. D. Englehardt, R. C. Ward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The foregoing O&M specifications for septic tanks are an example of state-of-the-art estimates developed for on-site or small-flow wastewater treatment technology. Parallel sets of recommendations were developed for each technology listed earlier and these are presented elsewhere. The computer program was developed to facilitate O&M analysis for a community of onsite systems. Individual data sheets can be used for individual determinations of O&M needs. When the O&M needs of a community that contains a range of technology are evaluated using the computer program, the results are presented in a computer-generated report. The report consists of a summary of the analysis and an appendix that contains cost results. The computer-generated appendix presents the specific O&M requirements in the format of Table 1. An example of the results summarized by the computer-generated report is given in Table 2. Data in Table 2 may be useful for comparing technologies or for analyzing the total cost to the community for any or all of the alternatives. The costs shown in Table 2 reflect all costs over a 20-year period to both the homeowner (electricity, replacement parts for individual units) and the community (inspection and groundwater monitoring). However, any of these individual costs may be deleted from the analysis to determine, for example, assessment of user fees. Different combinations of on-site systems may also be input for economic comparison. Billions of federal state, and local dollars will be spent over the next decade for wastewater treatment, therefore it is imperative to determine the most cost-effective treatment methods. Results presented in this report can facilitate the knowledgeable selection and use of small wastewater flow technology. Such action will save money and protect the environment. There are, however, many factors that influence selection of a technology in addition to O&M. For this reason, all aspects of small wastewater flow technology must be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)967-971
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the Water Pollution Control Federation
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1986
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution


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