On the Lx-L6μm ratio as a diagnostic for Compton-thick AGN

I. Georgantopoulos, E. Rovilos, A. Akylas, A. Comastri, P. Ranalli, C. Vignali, I. Balestra, R. Gilli, Nico Cappelluti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As the mid-IR luminosity represents a good isotropic proxy of the AGN power, a low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratio is often claimed to be a reliable indicator of Compton-thick AGN. We assess the efficiency of the X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratio diagnostic by examining the 12 μm IRAS AGN sample (intrinsic L2-10keV > 1042 erg s-1) for which high signal-to-noise ratio XMM-Newton observations are now available. We find that the vast majority (ten out of eleven) of the AGN that were classified as Compton-thick on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy by Brightman & Nandra have a low LX/L6μm luminosity ratio, i.e. lower than a few percent of the average AGN ratio, as is typical of reflection-dominated Compton-thick sources. At low LX/L6 μm ratios, we also find a comparable number of AGN, most of which are heavily absorbed but not Compton-thick. This implies that although most Compton-thick AGN have low L X/L6 μm ratios, at least in the local, Universe, the converse is not necessarily true. We then extend our analysis to higher redshifts. We perform the same analysis in the Chandra Deep Field South, for which excellent quality Chandra (4 Ms) and XMM-Newton (3 Ms) X-ray spectra are available. We derive accurate X-ray luminosities for Chandra sources using X-ray spectral fits, as well as 6 μm luminosities from spectral energy distribution fits. We find in total eight AGN (intrinsic L2-10 keV > 1042 erg s-1) with low LX/L 6 μm ratios, after excluding one source where the 6 μm emission primarily comes from star-formation. One of these sources has been already found to host a Compton-thick nucleus, while for another one at a redshift of z = 1.22 we argue it is most likely Compton-thick on the basis of its combined Chandra and XMM-Newton spectrum. In agreement with the low redshift sample, we find a large number of non Compton-thick "contaminants" with low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios. Our results suggest that a low L X/L6μm ratio alone cannot help us to ascertain whether a Compton-thick AGN is present, albeit the majority of low LX/L 6μm AGN are heavily obscured. More interestingly, the two most reliable Compton-thick AGN in the high redshift Universe have high L X/L6μm ratios, showing that this method cannot provide complete Compton-thick AGN samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA23
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume534
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 29 2011
Externally publishedYes

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luminosity
XMM-Newton telescope
x rays
newton
erg
universe
Infrared Astronomy Satellite
spectral energy distribution
signal-to-noise ratio
X-ray spectroscopy
contaminants
star formation
signal to noise ratios
nuclei
pollutant
spectroscopy
energy
analysis

Keywords

  • infrared: galaxies
  • X-rays: diffuse background
  • X-rays: galaxies
  • X-rays: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Georgantopoulos, I., Rovilos, E., Akylas, A., Comastri, A., Ranalli, P., Vignali, C., ... Cappelluti, N. (2011). On the Lx-L6μm ratio as a diagnostic for Compton-thick AGN. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 534, [A23]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201117400

On the Lx-L6μm ratio as a diagnostic for Compton-thick AGN. / Georgantopoulos, I.; Rovilos, E.; Akylas, A.; Comastri, A.; Ranalli, P.; Vignali, C.; Balestra, I.; Gilli, R.; Cappelluti, Nico.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 534, A23, 29.09.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Georgantopoulos, I, Rovilos, E, Akylas, A, Comastri, A, Ranalli, P, Vignali, C, Balestra, I, Gilli, R & Cappelluti, N 2011, 'On the Lx-L6μm ratio as a diagnostic for Compton-thick AGN', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 534, A23. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201117400
Georgantopoulos I, Rovilos E, Akylas A, Comastri A, Ranalli P, Vignali C et al. On the Lx-L6μm ratio as a diagnostic for Compton-thick AGN. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2011 Sep 29;534. A23. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201117400
Georgantopoulos, I. ; Rovilos, E. ; Akylas, A. ; Comastri, A. ; Ranalli, P. ; Vignali, C. ; Balestra, I. ; Gilli, R. ; Cappelluti, Nico. / On the Lx-L6μm ratio as a diagnostic for Compton-thick AGN. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2011 ; Vol. 534.
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AU - Ranalli, P.

AU - Vignali, C.

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N2 - As the mid-IR luminosity represents a good isotropic proxy of the AGN power, a low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratio is often claimed to be a reliable indicator of Compton-thick AGN. We assess the efficiency of the X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratio diagnostic by examining the 12 μm IRAS AGN sample (intrinsic L2-10keV > 1042 erg s-1) for which high signal-to-noise ratio XMM-Newton observations are now available. We find that the vast majority (ten out of eleven) of the AGN that were classified as Compton-thick on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy by Brightman & Nandra have a low LX/L6μm luminosity ratio, i.e. lower than a few percent of the average AGN ratio, as is typical of reflection-dominated Compton-thick sources. At low LX/L6 μm ratios, we also find a comparable number of AGN, most of which are heavily absorbed but not Compton-thick. This implies that although most Compton-thick AGN have low L X/L6 μm ratios, at least in the local, Universe, the converse is not necessarily true. We then extend our analysis to higher redshifts. We perform the same analysis in the Chandra Deep Field South, for which excellent quality Chandra (4 Ms) and XMM-Newton (3 Ms) X-ray spectra are available. We derive accurate X-ray luminosities for Chandra sources using X-ray spectral fits, as well as 6 μm luminosities from spectral energy distribution fits. We find in total eight AGN (intrinsic L2-10 keV > 1042 erg s-1) with low LX/L 6 μm ratios, after excluding one source where the 6 μm emission primarily comes from star-formation. One of these sources has been already found to host a Compton-thick nucleus, while for another one at a redshift of z = 1.22 we argue it is most likely Compton-thick on the basis of its combined Chandra and XMM-Newton spectrum. In agreement with the low redshift sample, we find a large number of non Compton-thick "contaminants" with low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios. Our results suggest that a low L X/L6μm ratio alone cannot help us to ascertain whether a Compton-thick AGN is present, albeit the majority of low LX/L 6μm AGN are heavily obscured. More interestingly, the two most reliable Compton-thick AGN in the high redshift Universe have high L X/L6μm ratios, showing that this method cannot provide complete Compton-thick AGN samples.

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