On the Form and Function of Forgiving: Modeling the Time-Forgiveness Relationship and Testing the Valuable Relationships Hypothesis

Michael McCullough, Lindsey Root Luna, Jack W. Berry, Benjamin A. Tabak, Giacomo Bono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In two studies, the authors sought to identify the mathematical function underlying the temporal course of forgiveness. A logarithmic model outperformed linear, exponential, power, hyperbolic, and exponential-power models. The logarithmic function implies a psychological process yielding diminishing returns, corresponds to the Weber-Fechner law, and is functionally similar to the power law underlying the psychophysical function (Stevens, 1971) and the forgetting function (Wixted & Ebbesen, 1997). By 3 months after their transgressions, the typical participant's forgiveness had increased by two log-odds units. Individual differences in rates of change were correlated with robust predictors of forgiveness. Consistent with evolutionary theorizing (McCullough, 2008), Study 2 revealed that forgiveness was uniquely associated with participants' perceptions that their relationships with their offenders retained value.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)358-376
Number of pages19
JournalEmotion
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

Fingerprint

Forgiveness
Differential Threshold
Individuality
Linear Models
Psychology
Power (Psychology)

Keywords

  • change
  • evolution
  • forgiveness
  • multilevel modeling
  • nonlinear models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

On the Form and Function of Forgiving : Modeling the Time-Forgiveness Relationship and Testing the Valuable Relationships Hypothesis. / McCullough, Michael; Luna, Lindsey Root; Berry, Jack W.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Bono, Giacomo.

In: Emotion, Vol. 10, No. 3, 01.06.2010, p. 358-376.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McCullough, Michael ; Luna, Lindsey Root ; Berry, Jack W. ; Tabak, Benjamin A. ; Bono, Giacomo. / On the Form and Function of Forgiving : Modeling the Time-Forgiveness Relationship and Testing the Valuable Relationships Hypothesis. In: Emotion. 2010 ; Vol. 10, No. 3. pp. 358-376.
@article{ea7c1efc513f479e99645898e3db1b37,
title = "On the Form and Function of Forgiving: Modeling the Time-Forgiveness Relationship and Testing the Valuable Relationships Hypothesis",
abstract = "In two studies, the authors sought to identify the mathematical function underlying the temporal course of forgiveness. A logarithmic model outperformed linear, exponential, power, hyperbolic, and exponential-power models. The logarithmic function implies a psychological process yielding diminishing returns, corresponds to the Weber-Fechner law, and is functionally similar to the power law underlying the psychophysical function (Stevens, 1971) and the forgetting function (Wixted & Ebbesen, 1997). By 3 months after their transgressions, the typical participant's forgiveness had increased by two log-odds units. Individual differences in rates of change were correlated with robust predictors of forgiveness. Consistent with evolutionary theorizing (McCullough, 2008), Study 2 revealed that forgiveness was uniquely associated with participants' perceptions that their relationships with their offenders retained value.",
keywords = "change, evolution, forgiveness, multilevel modeling, nonlinear models",
author = "Michael McCullough and Luna, {Lindsey Root} and Berry, {Jack W.} and Tabak, {Benjamin A.} and Giacomo Bono",
year = "2010",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/a0019349",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "358--376",
journal = "Emotion",
issn = "1528-3542",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - On the Form and Function of Forgiving

T2 - Modeling the Time-Forgiveness Relationship and Testing the Valuable Relationships Hypothesis

AU - McCullough, Michael

AU - Luna, Lindsey Root

AU - Berry, Jack W.

AU - Tabak, Benjamin A.

AU - Bono, Giacomo

PY - 2010/6/1

Y1 - 2010/6/1

N2 - In two studies, the authors sought to identify the mathematical function underlying the temporal course of forgiveness. A logarithmic model outperformed linear, exponential, power, hyperbolic, and exponential-power models. The logarithmic function implies a psychological process yielding diminishing returns, corresponds to the Weber-Fechner law, and is functionally similar to the power law underlying the psychophysical function (Stevens, 1971) and the forgetting function (Wixted & Ebbesen, 1997). By 3 months after their transgressions, the typical participant's forgiveness had increased by two log-odds units. Individual differences in rates of change were correlated with robust predictors of forgiveness. Consistent with evolutionary theorizing (McCullough, 2008), Study 2 revealed that forgiveness was uniquely associated with participants' perceptions that their relationships with their offenders retained value.

AB - In two studies, the authors sought to identify the mathematical function underlying the temporal course of forgiveness. A logarithmic model outperformed linear, exponential, power, hyperbolic, and exponential-power models. The logarithmic function implies a psychological process yielding diminishing returns, corresponds to the Weber-Fechner law, and is functionally similar to the power law underlying the psychophysical function (Stevens, 1971) and the forgetting function (Wixted & Ebbesen, 1997). By 3 months after their transgressions, the typical participant's forgiveness had increased by two log-odds units. Individual differences in rates of change were correlated with robust predictors of forgiveness. Consistent with evolutionary theorizing (McCullough, 2008), Study 2 revealed that forgiveness was uniquely associated with participants' perceptions that their relationships with their offenders retained value.

KW - change

KW - evolution

KW - forgiveness

KW - multilevel modeling

KW - nonlinear models

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77953464847&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77953464847&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/a0019349

DO - 10.1037/a0019349

M3 - Article

C2 - 20515225

AN - SCOPUS:77953464847

VL - 10

SP - 358

EP - 376

JO - Emotion

JF - Emotion

SN - 1528-3542

IS - 3

ER -