Older Adults Receiving Home Enretal Nutrition: Enteral Regimen, Provider Involvement, and Health Care Outcomes

Heidi J. Silver, Nancy S. Wellman, David Arnold, Alan Livingstone, Patricia M Byers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is most frequently prescribed for older adults. Medicare reimbursement policy limits in-home nursing visits, and in-home professional nutrition services are restricted to those patients with diabetes or predialysis kidney disease. Most older adults receiving HEN rely on informal (family) caregivers to provide HEN care. The purpose of this study was to apply care process theory to identify and investigate variables related to health care outcomes of HEN in a sample of older adults dependent on informal caregivers. We assessed relationships among patient characteristics, the HEN regimen prescription and adherence, formal provider involvement, and health care outcomes. Methods: In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic (14 white, 8 Hispanic, 7 African American, 1 Asian) sample of 30 older adults (mean = 68.4 years) during their first 3 months of HEN (mean = 1.83 months). Results: Daily enteral intake averaged 1596 ± 553 kcal. Gastrointestinal complications, occurring in up to 63.3% of patients, interrupted daily infusions. Further, one-third reported tube clogging or leaking, and one-third had tube displacement. Water intake was half of calculated need and associated with decreased urination (p = .001). Average weight change was -4.35 pounds (p = .001), and 17 patients had body mass indexes (BMIs) <18.5. Women had more complications (p = .004), lower enteral intake (p = .009), and lower BMIs (p = .02). Only 6 patients saw dietitians in follow-up care. Complications and type of feeding tube were associated with unscheduled health care visits and readmissions (p < .05). Conclusion: The efficacy of HEN in older adults (ie, reversal of malnutrition and improvements in health, functionality and quality of life) requires more frequent monitoring, reassessment, and intervention from a highly skilled multidisciplinary team that includes dietitians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)92-98
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Volume28
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2004

Fingerprint

enteral feeding
Enteral Nutrition
Health Personnel
health services
dietitians
health care workers
Nutritionists
body mass index
Caregivers
Small Intestine
Body Mass Index
nursing homes
urination
tube feeding
Home Nursing
Delivery of Health Care
nutritionists
Aftercare
House Calls
African Americans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

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title = "Older Adults Receiving Home Enretal Nutrition: Enteral Regimen, Provider Involvement, and Health Care Outcomes",
abstract = "Background: Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is most frequently prescribed for older adults. Medicare reimbursement policy limits in-home nursing visits, and in-home professional nutrition services are restricted to those patients with diabetes or predialysis kidney disease. Most older adults receiving HEN rely on informal (family) caregivers to provide HEN care. The purpose of this study was to apply care process theory to identify and investigate variables related to health care outcomes of HEN in a sample of older adults dependent on informal caregivers. We assessed relationships among patient characteristics, the HEN regimen prescription and adherence, formal provider involvement, and health care outcomes. Methods: In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic (14 white, 8 Hispanic, 7 African American, 1 Asian) sample of 30 older adults (mean = 68.4 years) during their first 3 months of HEN (mean = 1.83 months). Results: Daily enteral intake averaged 1596 ± 553 kcal. Gastrointestinal complications, occurring in up to 63.3{\%} of patients, interrupted daily infusions. Further, one-third reported tube clogging or leaking, and one-third had tube displacement. Water intake was half of calculated need and associated with decreased urination (p = .001). Average weight change was -4.35 pounds (p = .001), and 17 patients had body mass indexes (BMIs) <18.5. Women had more complications (p = .004), lower enteral intake (p = .009), and lower BMIs (p = .02). Only 6 patients saw dietitians in follow-up care. Complications and type of feeding tube were associated with unscheduled health care visits and readmissions (p < .05). Conclusion: The efficacy of HEN in older adults (ie, reversal of malnutrition and improvements in health, functionality and quality of life) requires more frequent monitoring, reassessment, and intervention from a highly skilled multidisciplinary team that includes dietitians.",
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T1 - Older Adults Receiving Home Enretal Nutrition

T2 - Enteral Regimen, Provider Involvement, and Health Care Outcomes

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AU - Wellman, Nancy S.

AU - Arnold, David

AU - Livingstone, Alan

AU - Byers, Patricia M

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N2 - Background: Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is most frequently prescribed for older adults. Medicare reimbursement policy limits in-home nursing visits, and in-home professional nutrition services are restricted to those patients with diabetes or predialysis kidney disease. Most older adults receiving HEN rely on informal (family) caregivers to provide HEN care. The purpose of this study was to apply care process theory to identify and investigate variables related to health care outcomes of HEN in a sample of older adults dependent on informal caregivers. We assessed relationships among patient characteristics, the HEN regimen prescription and adherence, formal provider involvement, and health care outcomes. Methods: In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic (14 white, 8 Hispanic, 7 African American, 1 Asian) sample of 30 older adults (mean = 68.4 years) during their first 3 months of HEN (mean = 1.83 months). Results: Daily enteral intake averaged 1596 ± 553 kcal. Gastrointestinal complications, occurring in up to 63.3% of patients, interrupted daily infusions. Further, one-third reported tube clogging or leaking, and one-third had tube displacement. Water intake was half of calculated need and associated with decreased urination (p = .001). Average weight change was -4.35 pounds (p = .001), and 17 patients had body mass indexes (BMIs) <18.5. Women had more complications (p = .004), lower enteral intake (p = .009), and lower BMIs (p = .02). Only 6 patients saw dietitians in follow-up care. Complications and type of feeding tube were associated with unscheduled health care visits and readmissions (p < .05). Conclusion: The efficacy of HEN in older adults (ie, reversal of malnutrition and improvements in health, functionality and quality of life) requires more frequent monitoring, reassessment, and intervention from a highly skilled multidisciplinary team that includes dietitians.

AB - Background: Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is most frequently prescribed for older adults. Medicare reimbursement policy limits in-home nursing visits, and in-home professional nutrition services are restricted to those patients with diabetes or predialysis kidney disease. Most older adults receiving HEN rely on informal (family) caregivers to provide HEN care. The purpose of this study was to apply care process theory to identify and investigate variables related to health care outcomes of HEN in a sample of older adults dependent on informal caregivers. We assessed relationships among patient characteristics, the HEN regimen prescription and adherence, formal provider involvement, and health care outcomes. Methods: In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic (14 white, 8 Hispanic, 7 African American, 1 Asian) sample of 30 older adults (mean = 68.4 years) during their first 3 months of HEN (mean = 1.83 months). Results: Daily enteral intake averaged 1596 ± 553 kcal. Gastrointestinal complications, occurring in up to 63.3% of patients, interrupted daily infusions. Further, one-third reported tube clogging or leaking, and one-third had tube displacement. Water intake was half of calculated need and associated with decreased urination (p = .001). Average weight change was -4.35 pounds (p = .001), and 17 patients had body mass indexes (BMIs) <18.5. Women had more complications (p = .004), lower enteral intake (p = .009), and lower BMIs (p = .02). Only 6 patients saw dietitians in follow-up care. Complications and type of feeding tube were associated with unscheduled health care visits and readmissions (p < .05). Conclusion: The efficacy of HEN in older adults (ie, reversal of malnutrition and improvements in health, functionality and quality of life) requires more frequent monitoring, reassessment, and intervention from a highly skilled multidisciplinary team that includes dietitians.

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