Deficient repair activity for 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine (8-oxoguanine), a premutagenic oxidative DNA damage, has been observed in affected tissues in neurodegenerative diseases of aging, such as Alzheimer's disease, and in ischemia/reperfusion injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. These conditions have in common the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage, which is believed to play a role in disease progression, and loss of intracellular calcium regulation. These observations suggest that oxidative DNA damage repair capacity may be influenced by fluctuations in cellular calcium. We have identified human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), the major 8-oxoguanine repair activity, as a specific target of the Ca2+-dependent protease Calpain I. Protein sequencing of a truncated partially calpain-digested OGG1 revealed that calpain recognizes OGG1 for degradation at a putative PEST (proline, glutamic acid, serine, threonine) sequence in the C-terminus of the enzyme. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that OGG1 and Calpain I are associated in human cells. Exposure of HeLa cells to hydrogen peroxide or cisplatin resulted in the degradation of OGG1. Pretreatment of cells with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin resulted in inhibition of OGG1 proteolysis and suggests that OGG1 is a target for calpain-mediated degradation in vivo during oxidative stress- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Polymorphic OGG1 S326C was comparatively resistant to calpain digestion in vitro, yet was also degraded by a calpain-dependent pathway in vivo following DNA damaging agent exposure. The degradation of OGG1 by calpain may contribute to decreased 8-oxoguanine repair activity and elevated levels of 8-oxoguanine reported in tissues undergoing chronic oxidative stress, ischemia/reperfusion, and other cellular stressors known to produce perturbations of intracellular calcium homeostasis which activate calpain.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology