Transitional cell carcinoma is the predominant bladder neoplasm. These tumors are heterogeneous, and the risk of recurrence and progression should guide further management. When this approach is used, patients at lower risk avoid the morbidity and expense of unnecessary interventions and tests, whereas higher-risk patients are treated more aggressively. Cystoscopy and IVP remain the standard initial evaluation for patients suspected of having a bladder neoplasm. Intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy can be administered safely in the office to reduce disease recurrence when appropriate. The advent of lasers has permitted fulgaration of low-grade neoplasms in the office with local anesthesia. Surveillance of patients with superficial disease is still largely dependent on office-based cystoscopy. Tumor markers for the identification of recurrent disease are being investigated and may prove useful to reduce the number of negative cystoscopic evaluations performed for surveillance. Patients postcystectomy are followed up with attention to detection of recurrent disease in remnant urothelium, metastatic disease, and metabolic and nutritional disturbances, which may result from urinary diversion.
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