Endophthalmitis is characterized by marked inflammation of intraocular fluids and tissues. Infective endophthalmitis may be categorized by the cause of the infection, which helps predict the underlying etiology and most likely causative organisms. The major category remains acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis. Infective endophthalmitis is a clinical diagnosis but is confirmed by evaluation of intraocular fluid specimens. The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study offered important guidelines for the initial management of endophthalmitis, and these guidelines remain relevant to this day. Prompt initiation of empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy is important in achieving best outcomes.
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