Complex immunologic mechanisms are involved in multiple intraocular diseases. The field of immunology has aided greatly in better understanding and treating inflammation in the posterior segment. While traditional therapy has relied on drugs such as corticosteroids and antimetabolites that exert there effects by multiple mechanisms, the more recently developed biologic immune modulators involve specific mechanisms of action with the potential to significantly reduce side effects relative to more traditional agents. Better understanding of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy has led to the appreciation of immune mechanisms involved in these diseases and has suggested potential targets for therapy.
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