Ochre star mortality during the 2014 wasting disease epizootic: Role of population size structure and temperature

Morgan E. Eisenlord, Maya L. Groner, Reyn M. Yoshioka, Joel Elliott, Jeffrey Maynard, Steven Fradkin, Margaret Turner, Katie Pyne, Natalie Rivlin, Ruben Van Hooidonk, C. Drew Harvell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations

Abstract

Over 20 species of asteroids were devastated by a sea star wasting disease (SSWD) epizootic, linked to a densovirus, from Mexico to Alaska in 2013 and 2014. For Pisaster ochraceus from the San Juan Islands, South Puget Sound andWashington outer coast, time-series monitoring showed rapid disease spread, high mortality rates in 2014, and continuing levels of wasting in the survivors in 2015. Peak prevalence of disease at 16 sites ranged to 100%, with an overall mean of 61%. Analysis of longitudinal data showed disease risk was correlated with both size and temperature and resulted in shifts in population size structure; adult populations fell to one quarter of pre-outbreak abundances. In laboratory experiments, time between development of disease signs and death was influenced by temperature in adults but not juveniles and adult mortality was 18% higher in the 19ºC treatment compared to the lower temperature treatments. While larger ochre stars developed disease signs sooner than juveniles, diseased juveniles died more quickly than diseased adults. Unusual 2–3ºC warm temperature anomalies were coincident with the summer 2014 mortalities. We suggest these warm waters could have increased the disease progression and mortality rates of SSWD in Washington State.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20150212
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume371
Issue number1689
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 5 2016

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Epizootic
  • Host demography
  • Mass mortality
  • Pisaster ochraceus
  • Sea star wasting disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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