Observations of the structure and evolution of Hurricane Edouard (2014) during intensity change. Part II: Kinematic structure and the distribution of deep convection

Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey, Edward J. Zipser, Stephanie N. Stevenson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


The structural evolution of the inner core and near-environment throughout the life cycle of Hurricane Edouard (2014) is examined using a synthesis of airborne and satellite measurements. This study specifically focuses on differences in the distribution of deep convection during two periods: when Edouard intensified toward hurricane status, and when Edouard peaked in intensity and began to weaken. While both periods saw precipitation maximized in the downshear-left and upshear-left quadrants, deep convection was only seen from the aircraft during the intensifying period. Deep convection was located farther inside the radius of maximum winds (RMW) during the intensifying period than the weakening period. This convection is traced to strong updrafts inside the RMW in the downshear-right quadrant, tied to strong low-level convergence and high convective available potential energy (CAPE) as the storm remained over warm water in a moist environment. Strong updrafts persisted upshear left and were collocated with high inertial stability in the inner core. During weakening, no deep convection was present, and the precipitation that was observed was associated with weaker convergence downshear right at larger radii, as CAPE was reduced from lower sea surface temperatures, reduced humidity from subsidence, and a stronger warm core. Weak updrafts were seen upshear left, with little coincidence with the high inertial stability of the inner core. These results highlight the importance of the azimuthal coverage of precipitation and the radial location of deep convection for intensification. A more symmetrical coverage can occur despite the presence of shear-driven azimuthal asymmetries in both the forcing and the local environment of the precipitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3355-3376
Number of pages22
JournalMonthly Weather Review
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2016


  • Aircraft observations
  • Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena
  • Convective clouds
  • Hurricanes/typhoons
  • Observational techniques and algorithms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science


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