Obesity and risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and progression to multiple myeloma: A population-based study

Marianna Thordardottir, Ebba K. Lindqvist, Sigrun H. Lund, Rene Costello, Debra Burton, Neha Korde, Sham Mailankody, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J. Launer, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B. Harris, Ola Landgren, Sigurdur Y. Kristinsson

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22 Scopus citations


All multiple myeloma (MM) cases are preceded by the premalignant state monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Results from previous studies show a positive association between obesity and MM; however, the association between obesity and MGUS is controversial. The aims were to determine (1) if obesity is associated with an increased risk of MGUS and light-chain MGUS (LC-MGUS) and (2) whether obesity is associated with a higher risk of progression to MM and other lymphoproliferative (LP) diseases. Data from the population-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (N = 5764) were used. We performed serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light-chain assay on all subjects to identify MGUS and LC-MGUS cases. We included 11 different measures on current and previous obesity in our analysis. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazard regression were used to analyze the associations. A total of 300 (5.2%) MGUS and 275 (4.8%) LC-MGUS cases were identified. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 18 had progressed to MM and 11 to other LP diseases. We found no association between the 11 obesity markers and MGUS or LC-MGUS (odds ratios 0.81 to 1.15 for all 11 variables in both conditions). Interestingly, we found that high midlife body mass index increased risk of progression toMMand other LP diseases (hazard ratio, 2.66; 95%confidence interval, 1.17-6.05). To conclude, obesity was not associated with MGUS. However, we found overweight/obesity to be a risk factor for progression from MGUS to MM and other LP diseases, suggesting that obesity plays a role in the transformation of MGUS to MM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2186-2192
Number of pages7
JournalBlood Advances
Issue number24
StatePublished - Nov 14 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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