Numerical simulations of surface wave refraction in the North Sea, part 1: Kinematics

Hans C. Graber, Michael W. Byman, Wolfgang Rosenthal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


Numerical simulations of water wave refraction entering the North Sea between the Orkney-Shetland and Shetland-Norway are used to determine the expected errors in travel time, angular deflection and lateral displacement of ray paths when (1) accounting for shoaling but neglecting refraction effects in deep water ray characteristics and (2) perturbing the initial swell frequency and direction of incidence. The results show that depth refraction of swell waves is important and should properly be accounted for in numerical wave prediction models. It is shown that for the cases considered here, differences in travel time, angular deflection and lateral displacement exceed typical values for time step, grid spacing and directional resolution presently used in shallow water wave prediction models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalDeutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography

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