Recent advances in biomaterial development and cellular therapy have offered the possibility of exploring exciting new strategies to engineer cartilage tissue. Both natural and synthetic biomaterials have been used to design a suitable environment for cell support and provide the necessary biological cues to guide cellular behavior towards tissue repair. As with all other areas of tissue engineering, the advances in cartilage repair have been directed towards defining the appropriate organization between scaffold design, cell type and biomolecules. These hybrid-like approaches have enabled the development of tissue engineering scaffolds that are biomimetic and tailored specifically towards cartilage repair. The objective of this review is to highlight a number of current, novel methodologies to engineer cartilage via the use of biomaterials, cellular therapy and stimulating growth factors.
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