North Arabian and Aramaic texts from Ma‘ayan Baraukh in upper Galillee

David F. Graf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


During the 1980s, a large basalt stone was discovered in the foothills of Mount Hermon adjacent to Kibbutz Ma῾ayan Barukh in Upper Galilee. It is inscribed with several North Arabian graffiti, and another fragmentary text that is probably Aramaic, but has seriously been damaged. The North Arabian texts are nondescript graffiti, but gain notoriety by their provenance outside of Arabia. They may be regarded as either a product of local residents or the vestiges of Arabian travellers passing through the region. In regard to the former, it is widely assumed there was an Ituraean Arab presence in Upper Galilee during the late Hellenistic and early Roman era, but the evidence for their presence remains controversial. The fact that the Roman Road between Damascus to Tyre passed by or through Ma‘ayan Barukh in Upper Galilee makes it the more attractive hypothesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-43
Number of pages16
JournalPalestine Exploration Quarterly
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2017


  • Banias
  • Ituraeans
  • Nabataeans
  • Safaitic
  • Thamudic
  • Tyre-Damascus Road

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • History
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts
  • Religious studies
  • Archaeology


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