North American rainfall and temperature prediction response to the diversity of ENSO

Johnna M. Infanti, Benjamin Kirtman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

Research has shown that there is significant diversity in the location of the maximum sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In one extreme, warm SSTA peak near the South American coast (often referred to as Eastern Pacific of EP El Niño), and at the other extreme, warm SSTA peak in the central Pacific (Central Pacific or CP El Niño). Due to the differing tropical Pacific SSTA and precipitation structure, there are differing extratropical responses, particularly over North America. Recent work involving the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) system for intra-seasonal to inter-annual prediction on prediction of the differences between El Niño events found excess warming in the eastern Pacific during CP El Niño events. This manuscript investigates the ensemble and observational agreement of the NMME system when forecasting the North American response to the diversity of ENSO, focusing on regional land-based 2-meter temperature and precipitation. NMME forecasts of North American precipitation and T2m agree with observations more often during EP events. Ensemble agreement of NMME forecasts is regional. For instance, ensemble agreement in Southeast North America demonstrates a strong connection to NINO3 precipitation and SSTA amplitude during warm ENSO events. Ensemble agreement in Northwest North America demonstrates a weak connection to NINO4 precipitation and SSTA amplitude during warm ENSO events. Still other regions do not show a strong connection between ensemble agreement and strength of warm ENSO events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3007-3023
Number of pages17
JournalClimate Dynamics
Volume46
Issue number9-10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Keywords

  • Climate prediction
  • El Niño
  • ENSO diversity
  • North America
  • Teleconnections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

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