Norms and standardization of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)

Richard S.E. Keefe, Philip D. Harvey, Terry E. Goldberg, James M. Gold, Trina M. Walker, Courtney Kennel, Kirsten Hawkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

164 Scopus citations

Abstract

According to the recommendations of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Neurocognition Committee, one of the desired characteristics of a cognitive battery for assessing cognition in schizophrenia studies and clinical trials is the availability of normative data. This report describes normative data collected on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) from 404 healthy controls with demographic characteristics matching the 2005 United States Census of English-speakers. The six test measures demonstrated the expected pattern of correlations with age, gender, and education. Individual test scores were converted into standardized (T and z) scores and composite scores that were corrected for age and gender. An education-correction factor was calculated and recommended only for non-schizophrenia patients. Eight different verbal memory tests were found to have equivalent levels of difficulty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)108-115
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume102
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cognition
  • Neuropsychology
  • Normative data
  • Psychological testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Psychology(all)

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    Keefe, R. S. E., Harvey, P. D., Goldberg, T. E., Gold, J. M., Walker, T. M., Kennel, C., & Hawkins, K. (2008). Norms and standardization of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Schizophrenia Research, 102(1-3), 108-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.03.024