Normative data for ages 18-45 for ocular motor and vestibular testing using eye tracking

Aura Kullmann, Robin C. Ashmore, Alexandr Braverman, Christian Mazur, Hillary Snapp, Erin Williams, Mikhaylo Szczupak, Sara Murphy, Kathryn Marshall, James Crawford, Carey D. Balaban, Michael Hoffer, Alexander Kiderman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: Eye tracking technology has been employed in assessing ocular motor and vestibular function following vestibular and neurologic conditions, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Assessments include tests that provide visual and motion (rotation) stimuli while recording horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements. While some of these tests have shown diagnostic promise in previous studies, their use in clinical practice is limited by the lack of normative data. The goal of this study was to construct normative reference ranges to be used when comparing patients' results. Methods: Optokinetic response, subjective visual horizontal and vertical, and rotation tests were administered to male and female volunteers, ages 18-45, who were free from neurological, vestibular disorders, or other head injuries. Tests were administered using either a rotatory chair or a portable virtual reality-like goggle equipped with video-oculography. Results: Reference values for eye movements in response to different patterns of stimuli were analyzed from 290 to 449 participants. Analysis of gender (self-reported) or age when grouped as pediatric (late adolescent; 18-21 years of age) and adult (21-45 years of age) revealed no effects on the test metrics. Data were pooled and presented for each test metric as the 95% reference interval (RI) with 90% confidence intervals (CI) on upper and lower limits of the RI. Conclusions: This normative database can serve as a tool to aid in diagnosis, treatment, and/or rehabilitation protocols for vestibular and neurological conditions, including mild TBI (mTBI). This database has been cleared by the FDA for use in clinical practice (K192186). Level of evidence: 2b.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1116-1127
Number of pages12
JournalLaryngoscope investigative otolaryngology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • concussion
  • eye tracking
  • mild traumatic brain injury
  • mTBI
  • Neurolign Dx 100
  • neurological conditions
  • NOTC
  • rotation tests
  • vestibular conditions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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