Normal vulvovaginal, perineal, and pelvic anatomy with reconstructive considerations

Sujata Yavagal, Thais F. De Farias, Carlos A. Medina, Peter Takacs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-129
Number of pages9
JournalSeminars in Plastic Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2011


  • clitoris
  • endopelvic fascia
  • Female external genitalia
  • labia majora
  • labia minora
  • levator ani
  • perineal membrane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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