Normal vulvovaginal and perineal female anatomy

Peter Takacs, Sujata Yavagal, Carlos A. Medina

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


A comprehensive understanding of the female external and internal genital anatomy is critical for performing successful pelvic reconstructive procedures. To achieve the proper function and cosmetic appearance of the genitalia it is vital to restore the fine relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments and fascia that provide support. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. With the perineal membrane and the perineal body, the superficial vulvar structures are connected to the deep pelvic muscle (levator ani) with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia and work as one functioning unit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAesthetic and Functional Surgery of the Genitalia
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9781629486444, 9781628085112
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Clitoris
  • Female genitalia
  • Labia majora
  • Labia minora
  • Levator ani
  • Perineal membrane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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