Normal intraoperative spinal sonography

R. M. Quencer, B. M. Montalvo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Scopus citations


The normal intraoperative sonographic features of the spinal canal, spinal cord, conus medullaris, and cauda equina are described and illustrated. Important observations concerning the normal spinal cord include its highly reflective dorsal and ventral surfaces, its uniform hypoechogenicity, and the presence of a central echo. Other easily identified structures within the spinal canal include the dura-arachnoid layer, subarachnoid space, denticulate ligament, dorsal arachnoid septations, and the roots of the cauda equina. In addition the sonographic appearance of commonly encountered iatrogenically introduced material including Gelfoam, Pantopaque, cottonoid pledgets, suture material, Harrington rods, and freeze-dried dura is also demonstrated. These normal images can serve as a baseline for the interpretation of various pathologic conditions of the spinal canal and its contents as seen with intraoperative spinal sonography.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1301-1305
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1984

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Normal intraoperative spinal sonography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this