Non-carboxylic acid inhibitors of aldose reductase based on N-substituted thiazolidinedione derivatives

Mohd Usman Mohd Siddique, Abhishek Thakur, Deepak Shilkar, Sabina Yasmin, Dominika Halakova, Lucia Kovacikova, Marta Soltesova Prnova, Milan Stefek, Orlando Acevedo, Gayathri Dasararaju, Velmurugan Devadasan, Susanta Kumar Mondal, Venkatesan Jayaprakash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In search of dually active PPAR-modulators/aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors, 16 benzylidene thiazolidinedione derivatives, previously reported as partial PPARγ agonists, together with additional 18 structural congeners, were studied for aldose reductase inhibitory activity. While no compounds had dual property, our efforts led to the identification of promising inhibitors of ALR2. Eight compounds (11, 15–16, 20–24, 30) from the library of 33 compounds were identified as potent and selective inhibitors of ALR2. Compound 21 was the most effective and selective inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.95 ± 0.11 and 13.52 ± 0.81 μM against ALR2 and aldehyde reductase (ALR1) enzymes, respectively. Molecular docking and dynamics studies were performed to understand inhibitor-enzyme interactions at the molecular level that determine the potency and selectivity. Compound 21 was further subjected to in silico and in vitro studies to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile. Being less acidic (pKa = 9.8), the compound might have a superior plasma membrane permeability and reach the cytosolic ALR2. This fact together with excellent drug-likeness criteria points to improved bioavailability compared to the clinically used compound Epalrestat. The designed compounds represent a novel group of non-carboxylate inhibitors of aldose reductase with an improved physicochemical profile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number113630
JournalEuropean Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
StatePublished - Nov 5 2021


  • Aldose reductase
  • In vitro pharmacokinetic studies
  • Molecular docking
  • Molecular dynamics
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • X-ray crystal structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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