NMHCs and halocarbons in Asian continental outflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) field campaign: Comparison with PEM-West B

Nicola J. Blake, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Simone Meinardi, Aaron L. Swanson, Jimena P. Lopez, Aaron S. Katzenstein, Barbara Barletta, Tomoko Shirai, Elliot L Atlas, Glen Sachse, Melody Avery, Stephanie Vay, Henry E. Fuelberg, Christopher M. Kiley, Kazuyuki Kita, F. Sherwood Rowland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

138 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present an overview of the spatial distributions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons observed over the western north Pacific as part of the NASA GTE Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) airborne field campaign (February-April 2001). The TRACE-P data are compared with earlier measurements from the Pacific Rim during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West B (PEM-West B), which took place in February-March 1994, and with emission inventory data for 2000. Despite the limited spatial and temporal data coverage inherent to airborne sampling, mean levels of the longer-lived NMHCs (including ethane, ethyne, and benzene) were remarkably similar to our results during the PEM-West B campaign. By comparison, mixing ratios of the fire extinguisher Halon-1211 (CF2ClBr) increased by about 50% in the period between 1994 and 2001. Southern China (south of 35°N), and particularly the Shanghai region, appears to have been a substantial source of Halon-1211 during TRACE-P. Our previous analysis of the PEM-West B data employed methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) as a useful industrial tracer. However, regulations have reduced its emissions to the extent that its mixing ratio during TRACE-P was only one-third of that measured in 1994. Methyl chloroform mixing ratio "hot spots," indicating regions downwind of continuing emissions, included outflow from the vicinity of Shanghai, China, but particularly high emission ratios relative to CO were observed close to Japan and Korea. Tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4) levels have also decreased significantly, especially north of 25°N, but this gas still remains a useful indicator of northern industrial emissions. Methyl bromide (CH3Br) levels were systematically 1-2 pptv lower from 1994 to 2001, in accord with recent reports. However, air masses that had been advected over Japan and/or South Korean port cities typically exhibited elevated levels Of CH3Br. As a consequence, emissions of CH3Br from Japan and Korea calculated employing CH3Br/CO ratios and scaled to CO emission inventory estimates, were almost as large as for all of south China (south of 35°N). Total east Asian emissions of CH3Br and CH3Cl were estimated to be roughly 4.7 Gg/yr and 167 Gg/yr, respectively, in 2001.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans
Volume108
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 27 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Halocarbons
halocarbons
halocarbon
nonmethane hydrocarbon
chemical evolution
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrocarbons
methyl bromide
outflow
hydrocarbons
Chloroform
mixing ratio
Fire extinguishers
Industrial emissions
Tetrachloroethylene
emission inventory
Acetylene
chloroform
halon
Ethane

Keywords

  • Halocarbons
  • Halon-1211
  • Methyl bromide
  • Methyl chloride
  • NMHCs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Oceanography
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

NMHCs and halocarbons in Asian continental outflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) field campaign : Comparison with PEM-West B. / Blake, Nicola J.; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Meinardi, Simone; Swanson, Aaron L.; Lopez, Jimena P.; Katzenstein, Aaron S.; Barletta, Barbara; Shirai, Tomoko; Atlas, Elliot L; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Vay, Stephanie; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Kiley, Christopher M.; Kita, Kazuyuki; Rowland, F. Sherwood.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, Vol. 108, No. 20, 27.10.2003.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Blake, NJ, Blake, DR, Simpson, IJ, Meinardi, S, Swanson, AL, Lopez, JP, Katzenstein, AS, Barletta, B, Shirai, T, Atlas, EL, Sachse, G, Avery, M, Vay, S, Fuelberg, HE, Kiley, CM, Kita, K & Rowland, FS 2003, 'NMHCs and halocarbons in Asian continental outflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) field campaign: Comparison with PEM-West B', Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, vol. 108, no. 20.
Blake, Nicola J. ; Blake, Donald R. ; Simpson, Isobel J. ; Meinardi, Simone ; Swanson, Aaron L. ; Lopez, Jimena P. ; Katzenstein, Aaron S. ; Barletta, Barbara ; Shirai, Tomoko ; Atlas, Elliot L ; Sachse, Glen ; Avery, Melody ; Vay, Stephanie ; Fuelberg, Henry E. ; Kiley, Christopher M. ; Kita, Kazuyuki ; Rowland, F. Sherwood. / NMHCs and halocarbons in Asian continental outflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) field campaign : Comparison with PEM-West B. In: Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans. 2003 ; Vol. 108, No. 20.
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T1 - NMHCs and halocarbons in Asian continental outflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) field campaign

T2 - Comparison with PEM-West B

AU - Blake, Nicola J.

AU - Blake, Donald R.

AU - Simpson, Isobel J.

AU - Meinardi, Simone

AU - Swanson, Aaron L.

AU - Lopez, Jimena P.

AU - Katzenstein, Aaron S.

AU - Barletta, Barbara

AU - Shirai, Tomoko

AU - Atlas, Elliot L

AU - Sachse, Glen

AU - Avery, Melody

AU - Vay, Stephanie

AU - Fuelberg, Henry E.

AU - Kiley, Christopher M.

AU - Kita, Kazuyuki

AU - Rowland, F. Sherwood

PY - 2003/10/27

Y1 - 2003/10/27

N2 - We present an overview of the spatial distributions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons observed over the western north Pacific as part of the NASA GTE Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) airborne field campaign (February-April 2001). The TRACE-P data are compared with earlier measurements from the Pacific Rim during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West B (PEM-West B), which took place in February-March 1994, and with emission inventory data for 2000. Despite the limited spatial and temporal data coverage inherent to airborne sampling, mean levels of the longer-lived NMHCs (including ethane, ethyne, and benzene) were remarkably similar to our results during the PEM-West B campaign. By comparison, mixing ratios of the fire extinguisher Halon-1211 (CF2ClBr) increased by about 50% in the period between 1994 and 2001. Southern China (south of 35°N), and particularly the Shanghai region, appears to have been a substantial source of Halon-1211 during TRACE-P. Our previous analysis of the PEM-West B data employed methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) as a useful industrial tracer. However, regulations have reduced its emissions to the extent that its mixing ratio during TRACE-P was only one-third of that measured in 1994. Methyl chloroform mixing ratio "hot spots," indicating regions downwind of continuing emissions, included outflow from the vicinity of Shanghai, China, but particularly high emission ratios relative to CO were observed close to Japan and Korea. Tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4) levels have also decreased significantly, especially north of 25°N, but this gas still remains a useful indicator of northern industrial emissions. Methyl bromide (CH3Br) levels were systematically 1-2 pptv lower from 1994 to 2001, in accord with recent reports. However, air masses that had been advected over Japan and/or South Korean port cities typically exhibited elevated levels Of CH3Br. As a consequence, emissions of CH3Br from Japan and Korea calculated employing CH3Br/CO ratios and scaled to CO emission inventory estimates, were almost as large as for all of south China (south of 35°N). Total east Asian emissions of CH3Br and CH3Cl were estimated to be roughly 4.7 Gg/yr and 167 Gg/yr, respectively, in 2001.

AB - We present an overview of the spatial distributions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons observed over the western north Pacific as part of the NASA GTE Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) airborne field campaign (February-April 2001). The TRACE-P data are compared with earlier measurements from the Pacific Rim during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West B (PEM-West B), which took place in February-March 1994, and with emission inventory data for 2000. Despite the limited spatial and temporal data coverage inherent to airborne sampling, mean levels of the longer-lived NMHCs (including ethane, ethyne, and benzene) were remarkably similar to our results during the PEM-West B campaign. By comparison, mixing ratios of the fire extinguisher Halon-1211 (CF2ClBr) increased by about 50% in the period between 1994 and 2001. Southern China (south of 35°N), and particularly the Shanghai region, appears to have been a substantial source of Halon-1211 during TRACE-P. Our previous analysis of the PEM-West B data employed methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) as a useful industrial tracer. However, regulations have reduced its emissions to the extent that its mixing ratio during TRACE-P was only one-third of that measured in 1994. Methyl chloroform mixing ratio "hot spots," indicating regions downwind of continuing emissions, included outflow from the vicinity of Shanghai, China, but particularly high emission ratios relative to CO were observed close to Japan and Korea. Tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4) levels have also decreased significantly, especially north of 25°N, but this gas still remains a useful indicator of northern industrial emissions. Methyl bromide (CH3Br) levels were systematically 1-2 pptv lower from 1994 to 2001, in accord with recent reports. However, air masses that had been advected over Japan and/or South Korean port cities typically exhibited elevated levels Of CH3Br. As a consequence, emissions of CH3Br from Japan and Korea calculated employing CH3Br/CO ratios and scaled to CO emission inventory estimates, were almost as large as for all of south China (south of 35°N). Total east Asian emissions of CH3Br and CH3Cl were estimated to be roughly 4.7 Gg/yr and 167 Gg/yr, respectively, in 2001.

KW - Halocarbons

KW - Halon-1211

KW - Methyl bromide

KW - Methyl chloride

KW - NMHCs

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AN - SCOPUS:17744408370

VL - 108

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

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