BotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) is now widely established for the main approved indication of reducing glabellar lines, and is also widely used off-label to improve the appearance of wrinkles and lines in other parts of the face. The number of aesthetic procedures continues to increase as the patient population becomes more diverse, in particular with increasing numbers of people of color and men. Further developments in treatment may continue to expand the audience for BoNT-A by making procedures more comfortable and by delivering a more natural, less static appearance. These may be achieved through use of combinations of BoNT-A with other aesthetic procedures, tailoring the dose of toxin to the patient's muscle mass or by using novel injection and application techniques. Beyond amelioration of facial lines, encouraging results have been seen with the use of BoNT-A to improve the appearance of hypertrophic and keloid scars and even to prevent them. Studies have been conducted with scars in various parts of the body and further research is ongoing. Dermatological and other medical uses for BoNT-A are also active areas of research. Injections of BoNT-A have been shown to reduce signs and symptoms of acne, rosacea, and psoriasis, to reduce neuromuscular pain, and to bring about significant improvements in a number of rare diseases that are caused or exacerbated by hyperhidrosis. This paper reviews these new uses for BoNT-A, looking at the rationale for their use and discussing the results of published case studies and clinical trials. These areas have shown great promise to date, but more and larger clinical studies will be required before these treatments become a clinical reality. To this end details are also provided of clinical trials currently listed in the main clinical trials database to highlight research areas of particular interest.
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