New pediatric model of ischemic stroke in infant piglets by photothrombosis: Acute changes in cerebral blood flow, microvasculature, and early histopathology

John W. Kuluz, Ricardo Prado, Dansha He, Weizhao Zhao, W. Dalton Dietrich, Brant Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The etiology and pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke in children differ greatly from those in adults. The purpose of this study was to establish a new pediatric model of ischemic stroke in infant piglets for use in future studies of the response of the developing brain to focal ischemic injury. METHODS - Ischemic stroke was produced in male infant piglets (2 to 4 weeks old) by photothrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres up to 4 hours after occlusion. Early histopathology, including caspase-3 immunohistochemistry for apoptosis, was examined 4 hours after ischemia. The nature of the thrombus and its interaction with vascular endothelium were assessed by electron microscopy. RESULTS - Severe ischemia (0 to 15 mL/100 g per min) occurred rapidly in 1.4±0.2 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.4±0.7 g at 4 hours. Similarly, moderate ischemia (16 to 30 mL/100 g per min) was measured in 1.2±0.3 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.0±0.6 g at 4 hours. These regional cerebral blood flow values represent ischemic levels of blood flow in 20% to 25% of the volume of the ischemic hemisphere at 4 hours after ischemia. Ischemic infarction occurred in both gray and white matter, and cerebral microvessels in the ischemic hemisphere contained large numbers of inflammatory leukocytes. Caspase-3-positive cells were few in number and were found in the periphery of the infarct; cell death appeared to occur primarily by necrosis rather than apoptosis at 4 hours. Electron microscopy revealed a pure platelet thrombus firmly attached to the vascular endothelium, which in some areas appeared to be detached from the basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS - Ischemic stroke can be produced in infant piglets by middle cerebral artery photothrombosis. The stroke involved both gray and white matter and exhibited a robust inflammatory component. The mean infarct volume determined histopathologically amounted to 9.6±2.4% of the affected (ipsilateral) hemisphere, which was correlated well with the mass equivalent of tissue (12.0±3.5%), in which severe declines in regional cerebral blood flow were observed at 4 hours.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1932-1937
Number of pages6
JournalStroke
Volume38
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007

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Cerebrovascular Circulation
Microvessels
Stroke
Pediatrics
Regional Blood Flow
Ischemia
Vascular Endothelium
Caspase 3
Electron Microscopy
Thrombosis
Apoptosis
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction
Middle Cerebral Artery
Microspheres
Leukocyte Count
Basement Membrane
Infarction
Cell Death
Necrosis
Blood Platelets

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Focal ischemia
  • Middle cerebral artery
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Photothrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

New pediatric model of ischemic stroke in infant piglets by photothrombosis : Acute changes in cerebral blood flow, microvasculature, and early histopathology. / Kuluz, John W.; Prado, Ricardo; He, Dansha; Zhao, Weizhao; Dalton Dietrich, W.; Watson, Brant.

In: Stroke, Vol. 38, No. 6, 01.06.2007, p. 1932-1937.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The etiology and pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke in children differ greatly from those in adults. The purpose of this study was to establish a new pediatric model of ischemic stroke in infant piglets for use in future studies of the response of the developing brain to focal ischemic injury. METHODS - Ischemic stroke was produced in male infant piglets (2 to 4 weeks old) by photothrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres up to 4 hours after occlusion. Early histopathology, including caspase-3 immunohistochemistry for apoptosis, was examined 4 hours after ischemia. The nature of the thrombus and its interaction with vascular endothelium were assessed by electron microscopy. RESULTS - Severe ischemia (0 to 15 mL/100 g per min) occurred rapidly in 1.4±0.2 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.4±0.7 g at 4 hours. Similarly, moderate ischemia (16 to 30 mL/100 g per min) was measured in 1.2±0.3 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.0±0.6 g at 4 hours. These regional cerebral blood flow values represent ischemic levels of blood flow in 20{\%} to 25{\%} of the volume of the ischemic hemisphere at 4 hours after ischemia. Ischemic infarction occurred in both gray and white matter, and cerebral microvessels in the ischemic hemisphere contained large numbers of inflammatory leukocytes. Caspase-3-positive cells were few in number and were found in the periphery of the infarct; cell death appeared to occur primarily by necrosis rather than apoptosis at 4 hours. Electron microscopy revealed a pure platelet thrombus firmly attached to the vascular endothelium, which in some areas appeared to be detached from the basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS - Ischemic stroke can be produced in infant piglets by middle cerebral artery photothrombosis. The stroke involved both gray and white matter and exhibited a robust inflammatory component. The mean infarct volume determined histopathologically amounted to 9.6±2.4{\%} of the affected (ipsilateral) hemisphere, which was correlated well with the mass equivalent of tissue (12.0±3.5{\%}), in which severe declines in regional cerebral blood flow were observed at 4 hours.",
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T2 - Acute changes in cerebral blood flow, microvasculature, and early histopathology

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AU - Prado, Ricardo

AU - He, Dansha

AU - Zhao, Weizhao

AU - Dalton Dietrich, W.

AU - Watson, Brant

PY - 2007/6/1

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N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The etiology and pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke in children differ greatly from those in adults. The purpose of this study was to establish a new pediatric model of ischemic stroke in infant piglets for use in future studies of the response of the developing brain to focal ischemic injury. METHODS - Ischemic stroke was produced in male infant piglets (2 to 4 weeks old) by photothrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres up to 4 hours after occlusion. Early histopathology, including caspase-3 immunohistochemistry for apoptosis, was examined 4 hours after ischemia. The nature of the thrombus and its interaction with vascular endothelium were assessed by electron microscopy. RESULTS - Severe ischemia (0 to 15 mL/100 g per min) occurred rapidly in 1.4±0.2 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.4±0.7 g at 4 hours. Similarly, moderate ischemia (16 to 30 mL/100 g per min) was measured in 1.2±0.3 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.0±0.6 g at 4 hours. These regional cerebral blood flow values represent ischemic levels of blood flow in 20% to 25% of the volume of the ischemic hemisphere at 4 hours after ischemia. Ischemic infarction occurred in both gray and white matter, and cerebral microvessels in the ischemic hemisphere contained large numbers of inflammatory leukocytes. Caspase-3-positive cells were few in number and were found in the periphery of the infarct; cell death appeared to occur primarily by necrosis rather than apoptosis at 4 hours. Electron microscopy revealed a pure platelet thrombus firmly attached to the vascular endothelium, which in some areas appeared to be detached from the basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS - Ischemic stroke can be produced in infant piglets by middle cerebral artery photothrombosis. The stroke involved both gray and white matter and exhibited a robust inflammatory component. The mean infarct volume determined histopathologically amounted to 9.6±2.4% of the affected (ipsilateral) hemisphere, which was correlated well with the mass equivalent of tissue (12.0±3.5%), in which severe declines in regional cerebral blood flow were observed at 4 hours.

AB - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The etiology and pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke in children differ greatly from those in adults. The purpose of this study was to establish a new pediatric model of ischemic stroke in infant piglets for use in future studies of the response of the developing brain to focal ischemic injury. METHODS - Ischemic stroke was produced in male infant piglets (2 to 4 weeks old) by photothrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres up to 4 hours after occlusion. Early histopathology, including caspase-3 immunohistochemistry for apoptosis, was examined 4 hours after ischemia. The nature of the thrombus and its interaction with vascular endothelium were assessed by electron microscopy. RESULTS - Severe ischemia (0 to 15 mL/100 g per min) occurred rapidly in 1.4±0.2 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.4±0.7 g at 4 hours. Similarly, moderate ischemia (16 to 30 mL/100 g per min) was measured in 1.2±0.3 g of tissue at 15 minutes and increased to 2.0±0.6 g at 4 hours. These regional cerebral blood flow values represent ischemic levels of blood flow in 20% to 25% of the volume of the ischemic hemisphere at 4 hours after ischemia. Ischemic infarction occurred in both gray and white matter, and cerebral microvessels in the ischemic hemisphere contained large numbers of inflammatory leukocytes. Caspase-3-positive cells were few in number and were found in the periphery of the infarct; cell death appeared to occur primarily by necrosis rather than apoptosis at 4 hours. Electron microscopy revealed a pure platelet thrombus firmly attached to the vascular endothelium, which in some areas appeared to be detached from the basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS - Ischemic stroke can be produced in infant piglets by middle cerebral artery photothrombosis. The stroke involved both gray and white matter and exhibited a robust inflammatory component. The mean infarct volume determined histopathologically amounted to 9.6±2.4% of the affected (ipsilateral) hemisphere, which was correlated well with the mass equivalent of tissue (12.0±3.5%), in which severe declines in regional cerebral blood flow were observed at 4 hours.

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Focal ischemia

KW - Middle cerebral artery

KW - Neuroinflammation

KW - Photothrombosis

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