Context: Alagille syndrome is a rare autosomal-dominant genetic disorder caused by defects in the Notch signaling pathway, which involves multiple organ systems. Bile duct paucity is the main characteristic feature of the disease, which often leads to cholestatic hypercholesterolemia. Case Description: Wereport the case of a male infant who had developed failure to thrive, jaundice, intermittent pruritus, and multiple diffuse symmetrical skin xanthomas at 1 year of age. He was diagnosed with pulmonary stenosis, butterfly vertebrae of T4, T6, and T8; horseshoe kidney, and embryotoxon in the left eye. Laboratory workup revealed severe hypercholesterolemia. Alagille syndrome was suspected and confirmed by genetic testing, which identified a previously undescribed frameshift pathogenic heterozygous variant in the JAG1 gene, p.Arg486Lysfs∗5. Conclusions: Here, we report a unique case of a patient diagnosed with Alagille syndrome who was found to have a previously undescribed frameshift pathogenic mutation in the JAG1 gene and who presented with xanthomatosis and levels of hypercholesterolemia more than 2 times higher than those previously reported in the literature. We also provide a review of the different pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with the increase in serumcholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations seen in cholestatic liver disease in general and in Alagille syndrome in particular.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical