New development on hysteroscopy for endometrial cancer diagnosis: State of the art

Jose Carugno, Staci J. Marbin, Antonio S. Laganà, Salvatore G. Vitale, Luis Alonso, Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Sergio Haimovich

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer diagnosed in developed countries and represents the second most frequent gynecologic cancer-related cause of death following ovarian cancer. There are 2 subtypes of EC. Type I tumors (endometrioid adenocarcinoma) representing 85-90% of the cases. They are likely to be low-grade tumors and are thought to have a link to estrogen exposure. Type II tumors represent 10-15% of EC. They are characterized as high-grade carcinomas, with serous or clear cell histology type, and carry poor prognoses. The benefits of hysteroscopy in achieving a targeted endometrial biopsy under direct visualization over blind biopsy techniques are widely accepted. Hysteroscopic endometrial biopsy is performed under direct visualization and is the only technique that allows for the selective biopsy of targeted areas of the endometrium. There is no screening protocol for the early detection of EC. Among the general population, advanced age, obesity, nulliparity and the use of exogenous hormones are known as risk factors for EC. There are additional situations that portend an increased risk of EC that deserve special consideration such as in patients diagnosed with Lynch Syndrome, using tamoxifen, obese, or the young patient with a desire for future fertility. We presented a narrative review of the current role of hysteroscopy for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-19
Number of pages8
JournalMinerva Medica
Volume112
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Biopsy
  • Endometrial neoplasms
  • Hysteroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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