Properties and applications of two new classes of DNA base replacements are described. The first class is size-expanded DNA bases; these are benzo-homologous versions of A, C, T, G that yield base pairs 2.4 Angstroms larger than natural pairs. New studies have explored the ability of expanded DNA base pairs to be replicated by DNA polymerase enzymes. The second class of DNA-like molecules described here are "oligodeoxyfluorosides" (ODFs), which are deoxyribose-phosphate oligomers in which all nucleobases are replaced by hydrocarbon and heterocyclic fluorophores. These compounds have been prepared in large libraries and have been screened for unusual fluorescence and sensing properties.
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