Clinical experience over the last two decades has demonstrated that the endoscopic correction of primary vesicoureteral reflux and urinary incontinence caused by intrinsic sphincteric dysfunction is both possible and effective. The ideal material for use in these regards has yet to be developed. As a result, there has been a continuing research effort directed towards the development of new injectable substances. Nonautologous substances, such as Teflon, collagen, and Deflux, and autologous substances such as fat, chondrocytes and muscle, have been used either clinically or are under investigation. Although the ideal substance has yet to be determined, many of the substances currently under development appear promising. The use of a particular substance may best be determined by the clinical circumstance involving each individual patient.
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