Interactions of neutrophils with adsorbed proteins in components of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit and expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules on activated neutrophils affect neutrophil kinetics and margination. Lung and skeletal muscle along with oxygenator (OX) and arterial filter (AF) in the extracorporeal circuit provide the major areas of neutrophil (N) interaction. The dynamics of N-interaction and N-retention during 3 hr CPB was quantified with autologous In-111 labeled neutrophils (INN) in 4 groups of 20 Yorkshire pigs (28-35 kg, 5 sham; 5 CPB, 1 hr; 5 CPB, 3 hr and 5 CPB with heparinized circuit, 3 hr); anesthetized pigs were injected with INN (500-650 μCi), 30 min before CPB and heparinized, and underwent CPB with a roller pump, a hollow fiber OX (Bentley CM 50, 5.0 m2) and AF (Bentley AF 025, 0.25m2) at 2.5-3.6 l/min for 3 hr. N-dynamics on OX and AF was monitored by a calibrated Geiger probe. Neutrophil deposition, like that of plasma proteins on OX, reached a steady state almost instantly, but increased on filter with CPB time. INN distribution was viewed with a gamma camera; total INN was measured with an ion chamber and INN in samples of fibers and tissues was quantified with a gamma counter. INN in lung did not change significantly during CPB and increased in liver. The percentage of injected INN in lung, liver, and brain changed with CPB time and showed significant increase over sham-operated animals. Heparin coating of components decreased INN retention. INN/meter2 of lung, OX, and AF at 3 hr were 0.26 ± 0.07%, 0.06 ± 0.02%, and 6.17 ± 3.94%, and significantly lower on a heparin coated filter (2.14 ± 1.30)%. Capillary surface areas of viscera and connective tissues (lung, 100; liver, 134; spleen, 20; heart, 7; skeletal muscle, 92; fat, 12; bone, 3; bone marrow, 5; brain, 0.1 meter2) were estimated from distribution of activated INN in pigs. Lung INN retention was much higher than that of the polymer surfaces of OX/AF, indicating the role of cell adhesion molecules on INN retention on endothelial cells of lung and viscera. By direct continuous monitoring and quantitation of INN at the end of CPB, a sensitive technique for quantitation of neutrophil kinetics, margination, and retention during CPB was developed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering