Neuromodulation in drug resistant epilepsy

Natalia Rincon, Donald Barr, Naymee Velez-Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Epilepsy affects approximately 70 million people worldwide, and it is a significant contributor to the global burden of neurological disorders. Despite the advent of new AEDs, drug resistant-epilepsy continues to affect 30-40% of PWE. Once identified as having drug-resistant epilepsy, these patients should be referred to a comprehensive epilepsy center for evaluation to establish if they are candidates for potential curative surgeries. Unfortunately, a large proportion of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy are poor surgical candidates due to a seizure focus located in eloquent cortex, multifocal epilepsy or inability to identify the zone of ictal onset. An alternative treatment modality for these patients is neuromodulation. Here we present the evidence, indications and safety considerations for the neuromodulation therapies in vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), responsive neurostimulation (RNS), or deep brain stimulation (DBS).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1070-1080
Number of pages11
JournalAging and Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • DBS
  • Drug-resistant epilepsy
  • Epilepsy
  • Neuromodulation
  • Neurostimulation
  • RNS
  • VNS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cell Biology


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