Necrotizing enterocolitis

Catherine J. Hunter, Henri Ford, Victoria Camerini

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common life threatening surgical and medical emergency affecting the gastrointestinal tract encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. NEC occurs in 2-5% of all preterm infants although the majority of cases develop in infants less than 36 weeks of gestational age. It has been noted that infants born at earlier gestational age, develop NEC at a later chronological age. The average age of onset of disease is 20.2 days for infants born less than 30 weeks of gestation whereas disease onset is reduced to 13.8 days for infants born at 31-33 weeks and 5.4 days for infants born after 34 weeks of gestation. Epidemiological studies have identifi ed multiple risk factors for NEC, although a history of hypoxia, asphyxia and the introduction of enteral feeding are characteristically associated with premature infants that develop NEC. Despite its predilection for premature infants, NEC has also been described in term infants particularly those with cyanotic heart disease. There is no clear evidence to suggest that geographical origin, ethnicity or gender alter the incidence of NEC. NEC is characterized by intestinal inflammation accompanied by epithelial barrier disruption, bacterial overgrowth and submucosal invasion. In its most severe form, NEC is characterized by full-thickness destruction of the intestinal wall leading to intestinal perforation, peritonitis, sepsis and death. Although the overall mortality for patients with NEC ranges from 10% to 50%, it approaches 100% in infants with the most severe form of the disease, characteristically the smallest and most premature infants. Moreover, infants that recover from NEC may still require prolonged hospitalization due to complications from disease, such as intestinal obstruction due to scarring, short bowel syndrome and complete intestinal failure further impacting long-term survival, growth and development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPediatric Surgery
Subtitle of host publicationDiagnosis and Management
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Pages435-443
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9783540695592
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Premature Infants
Gestational Age
Intestinal Perforation
Short Bowel Syndrome
Pregnancy
Intestinal Obstruction
Asphyxia
Neonatal Intensive Care Units
Enteral Nutrition
Peritonitis
Growth and Development
Age of Onset
Cicatrix
Gastrointestinal Tract
Epidemiologic Studies
Heart Diseases
Sepsis
Hospitalization
Emergencies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Hunter, C. J., Ford, H., & Camerini, V. (2009). Necrotizing enterocolitis. In Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Management (pp. 435-443). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69560-8_44

Necrotizing enterocolitis. / Hunter, Catherine J.; Ford, Henri; Camerini, Victoria.

Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. p. 435-443.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Hunter, CJ, Ford, H & Camerini, V 2009, Necrotizing enterocolitis. in Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 435-443. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69560-8_44
Hunter CJ, Ford H, Camerini V. Necrotizing enterocolitis. In Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2009. p. 435-443 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69560-8_44
Hunter, Catherine J. ; Ford, Henri ; Camerini, Victoria. / Necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. pp. 435-443
@inbook{1d18dfbfe73b4483a0dc0f4be694ed26,
title = "Necrotizing enterocolitis",
abstract = "Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common life threatening surgical and medical emergency affecting the gastrointestinal tract encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. NEC occurs in 2-5{\%} of all preterm infants although the majority of cases develop in infants less than 36 weeks of gestational age. It has been noted that infants born at earlier gestational age, develop NEC at a later chronological age. The average age of onset of disease is 20.2 days for infants born less than 30 weeks of gestation whereas disease onset is reduced to 13.8 days for infants born at 31-33 weeks and 5.4 days for infants born after 34 weeks of gestation. Epidemiological studies have identifi ed multiple risk factors for NEC, although a history of hypoxia, asphyxia and the introduction of enteral feeding are characteristically associated with premature infants that develop NEC. Despite its predilection for premature infants, NEC has also been described in term infants particularly those with cyanotic heart disease. There is no clear evidence to suggest that geographical origin, ethnicity or gender alter the incidence of NEC. NEC is characterized by intestinal inflammation accompanied by epithelial barrier disruption, bacterial overgrowth and submucosal invasion. In its most severe form, NEC is characterized by full-thickness destruction of the intestinal wall leading to intestinal perforation, peritonitis, sepsis and death. Although the overall mortality for patients with NEC ranges from 10{\%} to 50{\%}, it approaches 100{\%} in infants with the most severe form of the disease, characteristically the smallest and most premature infants. Moreover, infants that recover from NEC may still require prolonged hospitalization due to complications from disease, such as intestinal obstruction due to scarring, short bowel syndrome and complete intestinal failure further impacting long-term survival, growth and development.",
author = "Hunter, {Catherine J.} and Henri Ford and Victoria Camerini",
year = "2009",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/978-3-540-69560-8_44",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9783540695592",
pages = "435--443",
booktitle = "Pediatric Surgery",
publisher = "Springer Berlin Heidelberg",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Necrotizing enterocolitis

AU - Hunter, Catherine J.

AU - Ford, Henri

AU - Camerini, Victoria

PY - 2009/12/1

Y1 - 2009/12/1

N2 - Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common life threatening surgical and medical emergency affecting the gastrointestinal tract encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. NEC occurs in 2-5% of all preterm infants although the majority of cases develop in infants less than 36 weeks of gestational age. It has been noted that infants born at earlier gestational age, develop NEC at a later chronological age. The average age of onset of disease is 20.2 days for infants born less than 30 weeks of gestation whereas disease onset is reduced to 13.8 days for infants born at 31-33 weeks and 5.4 days for infants born after 34 weeks of gestation. Epidemiological studies have identifi ed multiple risk factors for NEC, although a history of hypoxia, asphyxia and the introduction of enteral feeding are characteristically associated with premature infants that develop NEC. Despite its predilection for premature infants, NEC has also been described in term infants particularly those with cyanotic heart disease. There is no clear evidence to suggest that geographical origin, ethnicity or gender alter the incidence of NEC. NEC is characterized by intestinal inflammation accompanied by epithelial barrier disruption, bacterial overgrowth and submucosal invasion. In its most severe form, NEC is characterized by full-thickness destruction of the intestinal wall leading to intestinal perforation, peritonitis, sepsis and death. Although the overall mortality for patients with NEC ranges from 10% to 50%, it approaches 100% in infants with the most severe form of the disease, characteristically the smallest and most premature infants. Moreover, infants that recover from NEC may still require prolonged hospitalization due to complications from disease, such as intestinal obstruction due to scarring, short bowel syndrome and complete intestinal failure further impacting long-term survival, growth and development.

AB - Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common life threatening surgical and medical emergency affecting the gastrointestinal tract encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. NEC occurs in 2-5% of all preterm infants although the majority of cases develop in infants less than 36 weeks of gestational age. It has been noted that infants born at earlier gestational age, develop NEC at a later chronological age. The average age of onset of disease is 20.2 days for infants born less than 30 weeks of gestation whereas disease onset is reduced to 13.8 days for infants born at 31-33 weeks and 5.4 days for infants born after 34 weeks of gestation. Epidemiological studies have identifi ed multiple risk factors for NEC, although a history of hypoxia, asphyxia and the introduction of enteral feeding are characteristically associated with premature infants that develop NEC. Despite its predilection for premature infants, NEC has also been described in term infants particularly those with cyanotic heart disease. There is no clear evidence to suggest that geographical origin, ethnicity or gender alter the incidence of NEC. NEC is characterized by intestinal inflammation accompanied by epithelial barrier disruption, bacterial overgrowth and submucosal invasion. In its most severe form, NEC is characterized by full-thickness destruction of the intestinal wall leading to intestinal perforation, peritonitis, sepsis and death. Although the overall mortality for patients with NEC ranges from 10% to 50%, it approaches 100% in infants with the most severe form of the disease, characteristically the smallest and most premature infants. Moreover, infants that recover from NEC may still require prolonged hospitalization due to complications from disease, such as intestinal obstruction due to scarring, short bowel syndrome and complete intestinal failure further impacting long-term survival, growth and development.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84889852024&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84889852024&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-540-69560-8_44

DO - 10.1007/978-3-540-69560-8_44

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9783540695592

SP - 435

EP - 443

BT - Pediatric Surgery

PB - Springer Berlin Heidelberg

ER -