Purpose: Waterpipe (WP) smoking patterns and setting can result in a unique trajectory of nicotine dependence (ND) compared with cigarette smoking. This longitudinal study compared the development of ND symptoms among adolescent WP and cigarette smokers. Methods: A cohort of 647 eighth and ninth graders in Lebanon were followed over 5 years. This study was based on 283 current exclusive WP and 146 current exclusive cigarette smokers. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses were conducted to evaluate 50% cumulative probability for the development of initial Hooked on Nicotine Checklist symptoms and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) ND. Results: An initial Hooked on Nicotine Checklist symptom was endorsed by 59% of WP and 50% of cigarette smokers after smoking onset. Among those, 50% of both WP and cigarette smokers did so within 9.7 and 18.5 months, respectively. Approximately 28% of WP smokers and 22% of cigarette smokers developed ICD-10 ND. Among those, 50% of both WP and cigarette smokers did so within 15 and 22 months, respectively. The most common first to fourth ICD-10 criteria reported by WP smokers were “a strong desire to use tobacco,” “difficulties in controlling tobacco taking behavior,” “neglect of alternative pleasure,” and “use despite harm.” The most common first to fourth ICD-10 criteria reported by cigarette smokers were “a strong desire to use tobacco,” “difficulties in controlling tobacco taking behavior,” “withdrawal,” and “tolerance”. Conclusions: Compared with adolescent cigarette smokers, initial ND symptoms and ICD-10 ND can develop sooner after starting to smoke and progress more rapidly among adolescent WP smokers. Developing, implementing, and evaluating intervention programs with adolescent WP smokers should be guided by the WP-specific trajectory of ND.
- Cigarette smoking
- Nicotine dependence
- Waterpipe smoking
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Psychiatry and Mental health