The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure is a major cause of morbidity in the hemodialysis population. Most AVFs fail due to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). In this issue, Yang et al. delineated a mechanism responsible for transforming the fistula adventitia into a fertile soil for neointimal precursors. These authors pondered the role of hypoxia-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the activation of those adventitial myofibroblasts that may significantly contribute to the formation of the fistula neointima.
ASJC Scopus subject areas