A retrospective study was conducted at the Childrens Hospital Center at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, FL, to evaluate the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in nine children with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. The patients' ages ranged from 6 months to 7 years (median age, 42 months). Common presenting symptoms included prolonged fever, cough and anorexia. Only one patient had a positive tuberculin test. Five patients evidenced only pulmonary disease, three patients had pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease and one patient developed extrapulmonary tuberculosis (mastoiditis) and pulmonary interstitial disease that could not be attributed to mycobacterial infection because of lack of information. Organisms isolated before January, 1989, were susceptible to isoniazid and rifampin whereas isolates from three patients cultured after that time were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. The median survival time after M. tuberculosis diagnosis for all children was 20 months. Our study suggests that children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection who have tuberculosis have an increased risk for extrapulmonary disease. A high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis should be maintained in human immunodeficiency virus type 1- infected children with prolonged fever and respiratory symptoms. In areas of high endemicity of multidrug-resistant organisms, therapy with a broader panel of drugs may need to be instituted until susceptibility testing becomes available.
- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- human immunodeficiency virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health