Music Therapy Increases Serum Melatonin Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Adarsh M. Kumar, Frederick Tims, Dean G. Cruess, Michael J. Mintzer, Gail Ironson, David Loewenstein, Rogelio Cattan, J. B. Fernandez, Carl Eisdorfer, Mahendra Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


Context • Music therapy is known to have healing and relaxing effects. Although these effects appear to be mediated by release of neurotransmitters and neurohormones, the specific neurohormonal systems involved have not been fully investigated. Objective • To assess the effects of a music therapy intervention on concentrations of melatonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and prolactin in the blood of a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Design • Blood samples were obtained before initiating the therapy, immediately at the end of 4 weeks of music therapy sessions, and at 6 weeks follow-up after cessation of the sessions. Setting • Miami Veterans Administration Medical Center, Miami, Fla. Patients • 20 male inpatients with Alzheimer's disease. Intervention • 30- to 40-minute morning sessions of music therapy 5 times per week for 4 weeks. Main Outcome Measures • Changes in melatonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and prolactin following music therapy. Results • Melatonin concentration in serum increased significantly after music therapy and was found to increase further at 6 weeks follow-up. A significant increase was found between baseline values and data recorded after the music therapy sessions as well as at 6 weeks follow-up. Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels increased significantly after 4 weeks of music therapy, but returned to pretherapy levels at 6 weeks follow-up. Serum concentration ofprolactin and platelet serotonin levels remained unchanged after 4 weeks of music therapy and at 6 weeks follow-up. Conclusion • Increased levels of melatonin following music therapy may have contributed to patients' relaxed and calm mood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-57
Number of pages9
JournalAlternative therapies in health and medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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