Multimodal imaging of punctate outer retinal toxoplasmosis

Nicolas A. Yannuzzi, Orly Gal-Or, Elie Motulsky, Swarup S. Swaminathan, Emmett T. Cunningham, Janet L. Davis, Yale Fisher, Giovanni Gregori, Philip J. Rosenfeld, K. Bailey Freund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the multimodal imaging characteristics associated with punctate outer retinal toxoplasmosis (PORT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, observational case series of three patients who presented with PORT. Multimodal imaging was reviewed including optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and conventional dye-based angiography. RESULTS: Patient ages ranged from 13 years to 55 years. Each patient had multiple white, punctate outer retinal lesions in the affected eye at initial diagnosis. OCT showed both inner and outer retinal changes, including disruption of the ellipsoid and interdigitation zones and retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch’s membrane complex, as well as punctate, preretinal, hyperreflective lesions at the vitreoretinal interface, which regressed with treatment. CONCLUSION: Multimodal imaging is useful in diagnosing and monitoring treatment response in PORT, an uncommon presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis that must be differentiated from white dot syndromes or other causes of unilateral retinitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-287
Number of pages7
JournalOphthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging Retina
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Multimodal imaging of punctate outer retinal toxoplasmosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this