Motivation orientations, academic achievement, and career goals of undergraduate music education majors

Charles P. Schmidt, Stephen F. Zdzinski, Dennis L. Ballard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


This study is an examination of motivation orientations (mastery, intrinsic, cooperative, individual, competition, ego, approach success, avoid failure, hypercompetition, personal development competition) and musical self-concept in relation to measures of academic achievement and career goals of preservice music teachers. The research questions addressed (a) relations among motivation and self-concept variables and their underlying factors, and (b) relations between the motivation and selfconcept variables and academic achievement, class level, sex, and immediate and long-term career goals. Participants were 148 undergraduate music education majors from three American universities. A survey was administered to measure the motivation constructs and to gather information concerning academic achievement, demographic variables, and career goals. Of the subjects surveyed, 69.4% reported public school teaching as an immediate career goal, and 49.3% reported it as a long-term goal. Significantly greater numbers of women (62. 7%) than men (37.3%) indicated public school teaching as the long-term goal. Means for self-concept in music differed by university, while means for motivation and frequencies for career goals did not. Factor analysis revealed five factors: Competitive/Ego, Achieve Success/Avoid Failure, Cooperative vs. Individual, Intrinsic/Mastery, and Personal Development Competition. Significant but low correlations were found between Personal Development Competition and class level. Motivation and self-concept variables were not correlated with academic achievement variables and generally did not differ by sex or class level. Differences in motivation and musical self-concept by immediate and long-term career goal categories were nonsignificant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-153
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Research in Music Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Music


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