Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of fractures. On the basis of small numbers, patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been reported to have an increased fracture risk. Using population-based data from Sweden, we assessed the risks of fractures in 5326 MGUS patients diagnosed from 1958 to 2006, compared with 20 161 matched controls. MGUS patients had an increased risk of any fracture at 5 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-1.92) and 10 (HR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.49-1.74) years. The risk was significantly higher for axial (skull, vertebral/pelvis, and sternum/costae) compared with distal (arm and leg) fractures (P < .001). On the basis of 10 years of follow-up, there was an increased risk of vertebral/pelvic (HR = 2.37; 95% CI, 2.02-2.78), sternal/costae (HR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.5-2.48), arm (HR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), leg (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.26-1.56), and other/multiple fractures (HR = 4.25; 95% CI, 3.29-5.51). Risks for fractures did not differ by isotype or M protein concentration at diagnosis. MGUS patients with (versus without) fractures had no excess risk of MM or Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Our results suggest that bone alterations are present in early myelomagenesis. Our findings may have implications for the development of better prophylaxis for bone disease in MGUS, and they provide novel clues on pathogenesis of MM bone disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology