Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common type of cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and in the United States. CRC is a heterogeneous disease with a well-characterized stepwise accumulation molecular alteration associated with adenoma formation and progression to carcinoma. We review the genomic and epigenomic pathways, including chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and epigenetic instability or CpG island methylator phenotype, their characteristics, and prognosis. We describe the four consensus molecular subtypes of CRC established by the international Colorectal Cancer Subtyping Consortium, their mechanisms to develop cancer, molecular characterization, clinical features, and prognosis. Finally, we review currently used predictive biomarkers.
- Colon cancer
- Consensus molecular subtypes
- Genomic classification
- Transcriptomic classification
ASJC Scopus subject areas