Somatostatin (SRIF or SS) exerts diverse inhibitory actions through binding to specific receptors. In this study, two SRIF receptor complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were cloned and sequenced from goldfish brain using PCR and cDNA library screening. The two cDNAs share 92% similarity in nucleotide sequence and 98% similarity in the deduced amino acid sequences and are presumably derived from duplicate genes, as goldfish are tetraploid. Two cDNAs encode two 367-amino acid goldfish type one SRIF receptors (designated as sst(1A) and sst(1B), respectively), with seven putative transmembrane domains (TMD) and YANSCANP motif in the 7th TMD, a signature sequence for mammalian SRIF receptor (sst) family. In addition, the amino acid sequences of two receptors have 76% and 75% similarity to human or rat sst1, respectively, and 39-55% similarities to other mammalian sst subtypes (sst2-5), suggesting that the two receptors could be the goldfish homologs of mammalian sst1. The difference between goldfish and mammalian sst1 is mainly reflected by the extreme divergence in their extracellular N termini. Both SRIF-14 and [Pro2] SRIF-14, two of the native goldfish SRIF forms, significantly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP release in COS-7 cells transiently expressing goldfish sst(1A) or sst(1B), suggesting functional coupling of the two receptors to adenylate cyclase. Northern blot and RT-PCR showed that messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for both receptors are widely distributed throughout goldfish brain, whereas only one receptor mRNA is expressed in the pituitary. RT-PCR analysis also detected sst1 receptor mRNAs in several peripheral tissues. These findings provide fundamental information for studying the mechanism of SRIF actions in vertebrates and structural analysis of mammalian sst receptors.
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