Modifying cognition and behavior with electrical microstimulation: Implications for cognitive prostheses

Ioan Opris, Vincent P. Ferrera

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how brain activity generates complex mental states and behaviors. While neuronal activity may predict or correlate with behavioral responses in a cognitive task, the use of electrical microstimulation presents the possibility to augment such correlational findings with direct evidence for causal relationships. Although microstimulation has been used for many years as a tool for mapping sensory and motor function, its role in learning, memory and decision-making has emerged only recently. Focal microstimulation of higher cortical areas can produce complex mental states and sequences of action. However, the relationship between the locus of stimulation and the percepts or actions evoked is often stereotyped and inflexible. The challenge is to develop stimulation systems that do not have fixed output but can flexibly contribute to complex cognitive and behavioral tasks. We discuss how microstimulation has been instrumental in manipulating a wide spectrum of cognitive functions including working memory, perceptual decisions and executive control by enhancing attention, re-ordering temporal sequence of saccades, improving associative learning or cognitive performance. For example, stimulation in prefrontal, parietal and sensory cortices may establish causal effects on decision-making, while microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex or caudate nucleus enhances associative learning. Building cognitive prosthetics based on the insights gleaned from such studies may depend on the development of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) devices that allow subjects to control stimulation with their own thoughts in a closed-loop system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-335
Number of pages15
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume47
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cognition
Prostheses and Implants
Learning
Decision Making
Parietal Lobe
Saccades
Caudate Nucleus
Executive Function
Short-Term Memory
Equipment and Supplies
Brain
Cognitive Neuroscience

Keywords

  • Attention
  • Caudate nucleus
  • Causal relationship
  • CN
  • dlPFC
  • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  • FEF
  • Frontal eye field
  • Inferotemporal cortex
  • IT
  • Learning
  • Memory/movement field
  • MF
  • Middle temporal visual area
  • MT
  • Perception
  • Receptive field
  • RF
  • SEF
  • SMA
  • Supplementary eye field
  • Supplementary motor area

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Modifying cognition and behavior with electrical microstimulation : Implications for cognitive prostheses. / Opris, Ioan; Ferrera, Vincent P.

In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 47, 01.01.2014, p. 321-335.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{c4baaf6bbaa0404799b0808c58a94480,
title = "Modifying cognition and behavior with electrical microstimulation: Implications for cognitive prostheses",
abstract = "A fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how brain activity generates complex mental states and behaviors. While neuronal activity may predict or correlate with behavioral responses in a cognitive task, the use of electrical microstimulation presents the possibility to augment such correlational findings with direct evidence for causal relationships. Although microstimulation has been used for many years as a tool for mapping sensory and motor function, its role in learning, memory and decision-making has emerged only recently. Focal microstimulation of higher cortical areas can produce complex mental states and sequences of action. However, the relationship between the locus of stimulation and the percepts or actions evoked is often stereotyped and inflexible. The challenge is to develop stimulation systems that do not have fixed output but can flexibly contribute to complex cognitive and behavioral tasks. We discuss how microstimulation has been instrumental in manipulating a wide spectrum of cognitive functions including working memory, perceptual decisions and executive control by enhancing attention, re-ordering temporal sequence of saccades, improving associative learning or cognitive performance. For example, stimulation in prefrontal, parietal and sensory cortices may establish causal effects on decision-making, while microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex or caudate nucleus enhances associative learning. Building cognitive prosthetics based on the insights gleaned from such studies may depend on the development of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) devices that allow subjects to control stimulation with their own thoughts in a closed-loop system.",
keywords = "Attention, Caudate nucleus, Causal relationship, CN, dlPFC, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, FEF, Frontal eye field, Inferotemporal cortex, IT, Learning, Memory/movement field, MF, Middle temporal visual area, MT, Perception, Receptive field, RF, SEF, SMA, Supplementary eye field, Supplementary motor area",
author = "Ioan Opris and Ferrera, {Vincent P.}",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.09.003",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "47",
pages = "321--335",
journal = "Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews",
issn = "0149-7634",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Modifying cognition and behavior with electrical microstimulation

T2 - Implications for cognitive prostheses

AU - Opris, Ioan

AU - Ferrera, Vincent P.

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - A fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how brain activity generates complex mental states and behaviors. While neuronal activity may predict or correlate with behavioral responses in a cognitive task, the use of electrical microstimulation presents the possibility to augment such correlational findings with direct evidence for causal relationships. Although microstimulation has been used for many years as a tool for mapping sensory and motor function, its role in learning, memory and decision-making has emerged only recently. Focal microstimulation of higher cortical areas can produce complex mental states and sequences of action. However, the relationship between the locus of stimulation and the percepts or actions evoked is often stereotyped and inflexible. The challenge is to develop stimulation systems that do not have fixed output but can flexibly contribute to complex cognitive and behavioral tasks. We discuss how microstimulation has been instrumental in manipulating a wide spectrum of cognitive functions including working memory, perceptual decisions and executive control by enhancing attention, re-ordering temporal sequence of saccades, improving associative learning or cognitive performance. For example, stimulation in prefrontal, parietal and sensory cortices may establish causal effects on decision-making, while microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex or caudate nucleus enhances associative learning. Building cognitive prosthetics based on the insights gleaned from such studies may depend on the development of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) devices that allow subjects to control stimulation with their own thoughts in a closed-loop system.

AB - A fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how brain activity generates complex mental states and behaviors. While neuronal activity may predict or correlate with behavioral responses in a cognitive task, the use of electrical microstimulation presents the possibility to augment such correlational findings with direct evidence for causal relationships. Although microstimulation has been used for many years as a tool for mapping sensory and motor function, its role in learning, memory and decision-making has emerged only recently. Focal microstimulation of higher cortical areas can produce complex mental states and sequences of action. However, the relationship between the locus of stimulation and the percepts or actions evoked is often stereotyped and inflexible. The challenge is to develop stimulation systems that do not have fixed output but can flexibly contribute to complex cognitive and behavioral tasks. We discuss how microstimulation has been instrumental in manipulating a wide spectrum of cognitive functions including working memory, perceptual decisions and executive control by enhancing attention, re-ordering temporal sequence of saccades, improving associative learning or cognitive performance. For example, stimulation in prefrontal, parietal and sensory cortices may establish causal effects on decision-making, while microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex or caudate nucleus enhances associative learning. Building cognitive prosthetics based on the insights gleaned from such studies may depend on the development of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) devices that allow subjects to control stimulation with their own thoughts in a closed-loop system.

KW - Attention

KW - Caudate nucleus

KW - Causal relationship

KW - CN

KW - dlPFC

KW - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

KW - FEF

KW - Frontal eye field

KW - Inferotemporal cortex

KW - IT

KW - Learning

KW - Memory/movement field

KW - MF

KW - Middle temporal visual area

KW - MT

KW - Perception

KW - Receptive field

KW - RF

KW - SEF

KW - SMA

KW - Supplementary eye field

KW - Supplementary motor area

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84983212647&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84983212647&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.09.003

DO - 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.09.003

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:84983212647

VL - 47

SP - 321

EP - 335

JO - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

JF - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

SN - 0149-7634

ER -