C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of signaling pathways that are induced in response to extracellular stimuli. JNK is primarily a stress-response pathway and can be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors coupled to membrane receptors or through non-receptor pathways by stimuli such as heat shock, UV irradiation, protein synthesis inhibitors, and conditions that elevate the levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). The molecular initiators of MAPKs by non-receptor stimuli have not been described. Ischemia followed by reperfusion or hypoxia with reoxygenation represents a condition of high oxidative stress where JNK activation is associated with elevated ROI. We show here that the activation of JNK by this condition is initiated in the mitochondria and requires coupled electron transport, ROI generation, and calcium flux. These signals cause the selective, sequential activation of the calcium-dependent, proline-rich kinase Pyk2 and the small GTP binding factors Rac-1 and Cdc42. Interruption of these interactions with inactivated dominant negative mutant proteins, blocking calcium flux, or inhibiting electron transport through mitochondrial complexes II, III, or IV prevents JNK activation and results in a proapoptotic phenotype that is characteristic of JNK inhibition in this model of ischemia-reperfusion. The signaling pathway is unique for the reoxygenation stimulus and provides a framework for other non-receptor-mediated pathways of MAPK activation.
- Cardiac myocyte
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Cell Biology