The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of mitochondrial injury by assessing N-Acetyl-Aspartate by MR spectroscopy in head injured patients and relating the extent of mitochondrial injury to outcome. The study population (n = 15) consisted of head injured patients (GCS < 8) in whom legal consent was obtained for MRS studies. Studies were performed on a 1.5 Tesla Vision/Siemens system. Size of Voxel equaled 8 cm3 with location determined from T1 images. Voxels were positioned adjacent to the lesion and in the contralateral hemisphere for focal and bilateral for diffuse. Mitochondrial impairment was considered as percent reduction in NAA/Cr ratio compared to matched controls. Mitochondrial impairment gradually increases soon after injury reaching a nadir at 10 days. Subsequently, mitochondria recover in patients with favorable outcome, but remains impaired in patients with poor outcome. The prognostic value of NAA/Cr to assist in management and also to serve as a surrogate endpoint for clinical trials appears promising.