Mild blast wave exposure produces intensity-dependent changes in MMP2 expression patches in rat brains – Findings from different blast severities

Takaki Inui, Michael Hoffer, Carey D. Balaban

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is a gelatinase with multiple functions at the neurovascular interface, including local modification of the glia limitans to facilitate access of immune cells into the brain and amyloid-beta degradation during responses to injury or disease. This study examines regional changes in immunoreactive MMP2 in the rat brain after a single mild (2.7–7.9 psi peak) or moderate (13–17.5 psi peak) blast overpressure (BOP) exposure. Immunopositive MMP2 expression was examined quantitatively in histological sections of decalcified rat heads as a marker at 2, 24, and 72 h after BOP. The MMP2 immunoreactivity was isolated to patchy deposits in brain parenchyma surrounding blood vessels. Separate analyses were conducted for the cerebellum, brain stem caudal to the thalamo-mesencephalic junction, and the cerebrum (including diencephalon). The deposits varied in number, size, staining homogeneity (standard deviation of immunopositive region), and a cumulative measure, the product of size, average intensity and number, as a function of blast intensity and time. The sequences of changes in MMP2 spots from sham control animals suggested that the mild BOP exposure differences normalized within 72 h. However, the responses to moderate exposure revealed a delayed response at 72 h in the subtentorial brain stem and the cerebrum, but not the cerebellum. Hence, local MMP2 responses may be a contextual biomarker for locally regulated responses to widely distributed brain injury foci.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number147541
JournalBrain research
Volume1767
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2021

Keywords

  • Animal model
  • Blood brain barrier
  • Mild blast wave
  • MMP2
  • Rat
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology

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