Microwave-assisted synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric viologens

Massimiliano Lamberto, Elizabeth E. Rastede, Justyne Decker, Franisco M. Raymo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Viologens are generally synthesized by N-alkylating 4,4′-bipyridine with alkyl halides. Under conventional heating conditions, however, their synthesis suffers from long reaction times and, often, low yields. In this work, symmetric and asymmetric viologens were synthesized under the assistance of microwave irradiation in good to excellent yields and in short reaction times.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5618-5620
Number of pages3
JournalTetrahedron Letters
Issue number42
StatePublished - Oct 20 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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