Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) refers to retrieval of sperm-containing fluid from optimal areas of the epididymis that are selected and sampled using high-power optical magnification provided by an operating microscope. Retrieved sperm are subsequently used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to induce fertilization and pregnancy. MESA is considered by many experts to be the gold standard technique for sperm retrieval in men with obstructive azoospermia given its high yield of quality sperm, excellent reported fertilization and pregnancy rates, and low risk of complications. However, MESA must be performed in an operating room, requires microsurgical skills and is only useful for reproduction using ICSI. Herein we present an overview of the evaluation of candidate patients for MESA, the technical performance of the procedure and the outcomes that have been reported.
- microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration
- sperm retrieval
ASJC Scopus subject areas