MicroRNAs: Markers of β-cell stress and autoimmunity

Francesco Dotta, Giuliana Ventriglia, Isaac V. Snowhite, Alberto Pugliese

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose of review We discuss current knowledge about microRNAs (miRNAs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disease leading to severe loss of pancreatic β-cells. We describe: The role of cellular miRNAs in regulating immune functions and pathways impacting insulin secretion and β-cell survival; circulating miRNAs as disease biomarkers. Recent findings Studies examined miRNAs in experimental models and patients, including analysis of tissues from organ donors, peripheral blood cells, and circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma, and exosomes. Studies employed diverse designs and methodologies to detect miRNAs and measure their levels. Selected miRNAs have been linked to the regulation of key biological pathways and disease pathogenesis; several circulating miRNAs are associated with having T1D, islet autoimmunity, disease progression, and immune and metabolic functions, for example, C-peptide secretion, in multiple studies. Summary A growing literature reveals multiple roles of miRNAs in T1D, provide new clues into the regulation of disease mechanisms, and identify reproducible associations. Yet challenges remain, and the field will benefit from joint efforts to analyze results, compare methodologies, formally test the robustness of miRNA associations, and ultimately move towards validating robust miRNA biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-245
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

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Keywords

  • biomarkers
  • islet autoimmunity
  • microRNAs
  • prevention
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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