Microbial release from seeded beach sediments during wave conditions

Matthew C. Phillips, Zhixuan Feng, Laura J. Vogel, Ad J.H.M. Reniers, Brian K. Haus, Amber A. Enns, Yifan Zhang, David B. Hernandez, Helena M. Solo-Gabriele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Beach sands can sustain indigenous and introduced populations of enterococci. The objective of this study was to evaluate wave action in promoting the release of introduced bacteria. To accomplish this objective this study developed a method to assess attachment and identified conditions under which introduced bacteria are integrated into the sand. A new "shearing assay" showed that attachment of the introduced spike mimicked that of the natural sand when the spike was allowed to integrate into the sand for 24. h at room temperature at a sand moisture content of 20%. Experiments in a wave flume showed that waves were capable of releasing about 60% of the total bacteria added. This suggests that for the range of wave conditions evaluated (height: 1.9-10.5. cm, period:1-2.7. s), waves were incapable of releasing all of the bacteria. Further study is needed to evaluate bacteria attachment mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-122
Number of pages9
JournalMarine Pollution Bulletin
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Feb 15 2014


  • Attachment
  • Beach sand
  • Enterococci
  • Wave flume
  • Waves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Oceanography
  • Pollution


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